Yuri Kochiyama

:15 My name is Yuri Kochiyama, but when I was young, I just used Mary and my maiden name was Nakahara.

:34 I was born in San Pedro, California. I just want to say that my mother told me that every single Japanese child that was born in the harbor area. That one Japanese issei woman brought us all into the world because no Blacks, Mexicans, or Asians could have a baby in a hospital. I mean there was a lot of racism that we didn’t even know about.

2:04 I think I did back then. They didn’t have the words Asian American. But our town was very much an immigrant town. Majority were Slavonian and Italian. Everybody was very nice and friendly to everyone. Helpful. I just went to a reunion and the people were still as warm and kind. I think I was lucky to grow up in San Pedro.

2:49 Oh, absolutely! But the school world, I never felt any racism. But as soon as I finished and tried to get a job, it was almost impossible. Because I went to 3 five and dimes. They wouldn’t take me. Then I went to Woolworths because I saw a Mexican girl there. And so I went over to talk to her because I knew her from school. And she said, “I’m the first Mexican.” And she said, “Why don’t you try? They might take you. But no Japanese has even tried here.”

3:24 And I was surprised. But they did let me have a job but it was only for Saturdays and holidays, but I couldn’t work a whole five or six days.

3:50 I always thought it was going to be that way because I saw all the other Asians who graduated before me. They had a hard time getting a job. I mean the only kind of a job you could get, well, a lot of people went to Chinatown in L.A. But there was no Chinatown or J-town in San Pedro.

But outside of that kind of racism that no one talks about, it was all against the people of color. Our town was majority Italian and Slavonian but I don’t think they experienced what people of color went through.

4:55 Soon as it came over the radio that Pearl Harbor was being bombed by the J airforce, my father had just come back from the hospital the day before. He had had some surgery done. And he was lying in bed. It was right after I came back from teaching Sunday school and the only one home was him and I. And then three tall white men came knocking on our door. I couldn’t imaging who they were and they all showed a little card and it said “Federal Bureau of Investigation. At that time I didn’t know what that was. And then they asked if a Seichi Nakahara lived there. I said, “Yes. That’s my father.” “Where is he?” I said, “He’s sick. He’s in the back sleeping.”

They just went right in the house. Didn’t say another word. Woke him up and told him, “Put on your slippers and bathrobe.”

And everything happened so fast. I didn’t have a chance to even ask where are you taking him. Well, they didn’t say a word and I didn’t and pop didn’t say a word. I just called my mother who was just down the street with my aunt and said, “Come home right away. Some white men came and took pop and they have a card that says FBI.” So mom came home right away.

6:45 Well, he was taken. We didn’t know…it took us days for us to find out where they took him. They took him to the federal prison. There’s one on Terminal Island. And then through lawyers, my mother found out, well I guess the lawyer went with her and said that she has to see her husband because he’s sick and all that. And so she started to I don’t know, I think it was every day. No one else could go but, she was able to go and see him.

6:33 He was getting worse. They were interrogating him for hours and my mother wanted that to stop. And then she said, “You have to let him out of the prison and let him go to the hospital until he’s better. Then you can take him back.” And then they said alright. And they put him in San Pedro hospital, which became a hospital only for merchant marines who were on Wake Island and they were bringing them to the San Pedro hospital. Mom said she was so shocked. She went to the SP hospital. It was just one big room, one huge room. And beds were all over it and they were all white guys who were injured in Wake Island and they put my father right in the midst of all that with a sheet around him and it said “prisoner of war.” And when she saw that, she said, “He’s not going to make it. He’ll be beaten to death.” And so then she got a lawyer and talked to the lawyer. Well because the lawyer was from SP and being a professional, they would listen to him and they made a agreement that until he gets better, he could have a room of his own. So that’s what happened. He got a room of his own.

9:31 They were…well none of our family saw him. My mother did and they told her that he’s a spy. She was shocked and said, “No he’s not a spy.” “We’ve been watching him for about 20 years and he’s been…” While it’s true he had been taking the Japanese steam ship people, those officers who wanted to play golf, and he would chauffer them to the golf courses. No military on the highway on the road then to any golf course. Though they said we had military installations on the way to the golf course. There wasn’t.

And then the reason we were suspect…I guess there’s a lot of reasons. First of all, they did not trust anyone who was in fishing because they knew the Pacific Ocean and they were afraid that if the J landed that maybe these isseis might shield them or hide them or something. So eventually every person who was over 16 and in fishing was taken. And they were taken to places like, not the regular concentration camps. They were sent to North Dakota, Montana. Places much worse than the camps we went to.

11:25 Well anyone who was in fishing. Because they’d know the water well.

11:39 They thought he was a spy. No matter WHAT they thought he was already a spy. I don’t know, maybe he went back to J the year before. And he was lucky because he and my mother and brother were on the last boat to get back to America. All those other niseis, the boat turned around and went back to J. And I’ve heard their stories: those who had to stay in J had to stay for 7 years and a lot of them were killed and young guys had to go into the J military. And all kinds of things happened ot them that had to go back to J.

12:43 I think every J was calling up each other to say, “Did they take your father away yet?! Has any body come around?” There were so many curious people that came. And then we found out years later that they had FBI men staying right across the street from us. We didn’t know until years later that they were watching. But I heard they were watching pop for a long time and I think it was because he was taking those J officers. It was really only to the golf courses, but they thought he was spying.

And it happens that he has one of those antennaes in front of the house, but more than an antennae. My father had it built just for looks. It looked artistic. One of those things and they thought that must be, pop was getting messages from Japan. But it wasn’t so.

14:20 I was in the car, it was on Sunday morning and I teach Sunday school every Sunday. And I got to the main street, Pacific. On 11th and Pacific and I saw all these soldiers, sailors, marines and they’re hitch hiking. I thought my god, what is going on here. I didn’t know anything about PH, yet. But I see a classmate of mine and he’s hitch hiking so I called him over and I said, “What’s going on? Can I give you a ride?” And he got in the car and said, “Don’t you know wht’s happening right now?” I said no. “Oh, J’s bombing PH.” I just couldn’t believe it, but I see all these soldiers and sailors on the street coming into Pacific. And all heading towards the fort. They said that they got an alert signal and so I just dropped him off there and then I went to the Sunday school.

And I never felt so different in my…all the time for the year I had been teaching there, I didn’t feel strange. They were kids from the neighborhood. I knew these kids. Junior high school kids. But THAT day, for the first time, I felt I’M JAPANESE!

We’ll everyone felt uncomfortable. They were all white. I used to take them home one by one we packed the car. And every body was so quiet, I thought the best thing was let’s call it short. No class today. And they saiad, “Can we still go in your car.” I said of course.

So I took all the kids home one by one and came home. And that’s when after I came home, the FBI men came.

16:51 Every Japanese was calling some other J but I guess they didn’t get around to that many. But in the first 48 hours, 300 were picked up. I didn’t know any women were picked up until years after the war. I don’t know why, but 6 J issei women were also picked up. All the rest were men and most of them were either in fishing or they were, they had a good job within the J community. They were leaders of the J community or they taught Japanese in J school or they were martial art teachers.

A few weeks later, exactly 6weeks from the time he was picked up, he was gone. I mean they brought him home the last 12 hours. A nurse brought him home in an ambulance and about not even 12 hours. They brought him home about 6 in the evening and early in the morning around 6 or 7, they woke us up and said, “He’s gone.”

And then the FBIs came over and said anyone who comes to the funeral, they’re going to be watched. They’ll be under serveillance. But any way, we had a regular funeral. Even though there were already laws passed that no J can travel more than 5 miles and there was a curfew for all of us. But the funeral was during the day that we wouldn’t be breaking any of the laws. And the FBI were all there watching the J come in.

But even the Hakujin family next door. They came to the funeral and I thought that was nice. Because as soon the war ended, all the people in town, there weren’t many J in the San Pedro side, but they didn’t know if they should even talk to us. If they talked to us, would they be suspect. So it just…

I had started a job at Woolworth’s, but they said they couldn’t fire me just because I’m Japanese so they said we’ll just see what’s going to happen. And they said if we have trouble because you’re here, you just gotta go. ON that, they let me stay all the way until all the Japanese had to be…

20:40 All the J said the same thing that so many of their white friends, they didn’t know what to do either. They didn’t know if they should say hello or not. There was a war hysteria mixed with racism and if we were Hakujin and we saw some Asians and the war was against Asians, I don’t know how we would be feeling. So all the isseis that talked to each other over the phone they said we all just have to be careful and don’t do anything stupid to make it worse for all the Japanese or for the white people. We had always lived harmoniously.

21:45 Other than that, I mean people in San Pedro were nice. San Pedro was connected with each other through high school sports. Every body in San Pedro, whether it was football, basketball, tennis, or what. Through sports, SP was quite a walnut town.

22:22 By April 1st, there was a schedule. I think we all left on April 1 or 2 or 3. And then Huntington Park. Then …

22:45 They had notices and there were even all kinds of things on the…that were put up on, not billboards, but they were put up outside that every body would know what was happening…23:09 It was on the radio. And there were a lot of Hakujins that I think they did feel bad, but they didn’t know what to do. They don’t want to get mixed up and being accused of being too friendly to J. We understood that, so we didn’t go out of our way to keep conversation or anything like that.

23:48 It was every single day from PH day in December 7, every day, what can we do for the Japs. It was the headline: Get the Japs Out. Get the Japs Out. And we knew that CA, OR, and WA and parts of AZ the combat zone for the west coast. So any J or part J, if they were living in that area,they would be uprooted and evacuated.

24:33 Oh yeah. I feel bad. Terminal Island had the best J dolls because they used to have Matsuri or something like that. They threw all the family heirlooms into the ocean and if any of them had guns or anything, swords, went. Anything J. But my family said we don’t want to throw these things away. It’s from the family. So they said they’re going to keep the yoroi, the J armor that we had in the living room. That we’re not going to get rid of it. And hope that whoever stays here will take care of these things.

But they went to every J home and said is there anything you want to have stored. Because it may be safer to have it stored. So I think things like yoroi or swords and things, somebody must have packed them. Maybe it was neighbors. And I think they kept in the police department.

26:00 It was only what you could carry. And so of course the parents of all the families are saying don’t bring anything unnecessary. And we just could not carry anything that could be used as a weapon. No knifes. I don’t think they let us bring chopsticks. No radio. The only thing we knew we should bring would be like clothes. They let us take spoons, I think. No knives, forks, or hashis. And we knew that bedding’s important. So we all carried some beddings. And they said, “What you can carry.”

But all these young mothers that have babies. Jeez! They had all those bottles and diapers nad stuff like that to carry that they couldn’t bring much besides the baby stuff. But we were at just the best age. I was 20, my twin brother 20, my older brother 23. It was the easiest for our age. But there were families with kids 3 years, 5 years, 6 years old. And so many young women who had just had babies. So they had all the baby parafinalia.

Yes, I was.

28:03 The Japanese have the word “shikatagani” it can’t be helped. And that’s about the only thing you can feel. But I only had one incident.

I was putting up flyers about an alumni dance, San Pedro High alumni dance. All the flyers were on cardboard. They were all different colors. And I was putting them up for about an hour and nothing happened to me. No one even questioned me or anything until I went to this hamburger hut. And it was a nice place with a lot of high school kids hang out. And there was a cop sitting…and when he saw those, they’re heavier than leaflets. But when they saw me come in there, and they were all different colors, this guy, he was the leutenant. This guy he says, “I think we’ve got to be careful.” And every body stopped talking and everything. And then he called me to the side. And I had hoped somebody might speak up and say, “I know she’s ok. You don’t have to…” NO ONE! They were so scared. Kids I knew while we were going to high school, but no one said a word except the one and only person I didn’t know at all. And he was the cook there. And he said, “I don’t see anything wrong with this. It’s just to advertise an alumni dance.” And then the cop took me outside and said he’s going straight down to the police station. And I had a car and he said, “I trust you know or we could find out where you live and all. Just go to the police station and we’ll meet you down there.” I said ok. 30:23 What could I say! Then when I got back in the car, I thought I wish I could bring a friend with me. And I went to several houses, guys who were on the football team, who I thought they’d go with me. But everytime I got there, they’re all living with their families and I htought, oh, their family’s not going to like that, so I thought I better go by myself so I don’t get anyone else in trouble. And I went to the police station.

But the seargent at the desk. I gave it to him and he looked at them. He said I don’t see anything wrong. And those cops who told me to be down there, when they came down here, the seargent said, “Why’d you tell her to come down. There’s nothing wrong with her carrying these!”

I didn’t tell anyone. I didn’t want them to be worried or anything. But that was the only thing I went through. 31:32

31:44 No. If our…something happened to our dog about that time. I would want to take the dog with me. I don’t know what happened, but something gave right below our house, something caved in. And the dog fell in. And we couldn’t…it was awful because here we were almost leaving and packing and then this happens to our dog, Teddy, who we loved. He always went everywhere with me. But I don’t know what happened…

But every J who had a pet, that was one of the big…what are you going to do with it? My cousin who lives just down the alley. And they told him he couldn’t take him. But the neighbors were nice. They said, “Any of the pets, we’ll feed.” And I think many J who were living on the San Pedro side, some neighbor must have taken pets. We don’t know what happened to them. Teddy was gone of course. And my cousin’s dog, when he came back, he couldn’t wait to see his dog. He was blind and he said, it be more merciful to have him just go. So he took him somewhere and they…but it was so pathetic. But the neighbors said we all took turns feeding him.

You know there’s a book coming out now. There’s a project called. There’s a J woman putting a book together. She’s calling every one saying, “Do you remember anyone who was NOT J (they could be anything, Black, white, brown) who helped the J during the war when most people would stay away” you know from that kind of thing. Her first name is J. Her second name is Seigel. Kansha project, I think. I know we’ve given her about 4 good stories.

Mr. Finch, he became the father (or god father) of the 442. He used to give candy for the kids in camp. 34:46 During Easter. And he went to every hospital to see how the J who were injured were getting along. If they were getting good treatment. And all those who became blind, he got blind dogs for them. And he made sure that all the amputees were getting good…prothesis. There were all kinds of people…

:09 the camps weren’t made yet, so we were all put in either a race track or fairgrounds. :31 All the people were put in either a racetrack or fairgrounds. So that means that most of us in the 7 months stayed in horse stalls. And they had it all organized because there’s big families and small families. But I think every unit, there should be four people. If you have 3 people, they’re not going to put 1 more in. So there was at least some privacy for the family.

1:14 Then they give you a muslim bag and they point out where there’s a lot of hay and you just stick the hay in the muslim bag and htat becomes your mattress. Well a lot of people got sick. Especially isseis. Maybe the smell. Well, not the smell of the hay, but the smell of the horse. You can smell the smell of the horse because they’ve been there so long, I guess. But I was just very healthy, 20 years old. And Art, he’s not in good health. He did well in camp. Better than when we were outside. I don’t even remember him getting asthma.

2:20 At the end of 7 months, in October, the whole, every one of those assembly centers (there were about 20 I guess). They sent every one to what they call relocation centers, which we call concentration camps. And they were in 8 different states; there were 2 in CA, Tule Lake and Manzanar. Other places would be like Arkansas, Idaho, Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming.

They were all desert place. We were in swamp lands in Arkansas. Wyoming was mountains. But I think most of them were deserts or looked like deserts. And htose who went to those kinds of camps, the number that came out with lung problems…

3:46 We were surrounded by forests. And on the other side were train tracks. We called it a swamp land. When it rained, oh mi god, you know that red mud. But we were better than in most places. I heard the worst places were deserts. And so many of those places, after they got out of camp, they went into…like Michi Weglen, she was in Gila River and she had lung problem all the way, through the years until she died. But it’s so strange that Art was really good! We thought he would have problems.

5:00 I tell you, the J. I was amazed how after a few months…we didn’t do anything to make it look nice, but those who do a little carpentry or something…I don’t know where they got the wood, because most of us we just used carton boxes. Couple of carton boxes. Make a table. 5:25 One carton box is a chair.

But there were J that made beautiful furniture and before they left after the 7 months, they had flowers growing in front of their barracks! I mean I was amazed. And the issei women, because they didn’t like the way it was when you went to the “blackhouse” where you could go for either a bath or to go to the bathroom. There’s no curtain and so the issei women especially, they’d even hold it and not go until night! Because they said they didn’t wan to go like that. Or they’d go with somebody and stay in front of them so no one would be looking.

And then the thing that was bad was they hadn’t finished the insides of these black houses. And the WORKERS were there. White workers. And we were in Arkansas so these Arkies. So no Japanese person would want to go poo poo or what! Unless they got out of there. And yes, I think J are very careful about…what’s the word? We’re very modest, yeah.

And so the issei women. We could send out for things like you could either do Sears and Roebuck or Montgonery Ward. Those were the two places that I guess all the JA used. And they would send for material because those MW things, they have a picture on each page. You know what you’re getting. And the isseis put a curtain at each urinal place. And they put a also curtains where you take a bath. And I mean after that, and that was done in maybe the first month. That people didn’t feel funny going to the bathroom. But at the beginning, even the little kids said they didn’t like to go because other people are watching you and especially everything is line up for this and line up for that and you can’t really feel comfortable when you know there’s a line starting right in front of you, you know! So I thought that was wonderful that the isseis did that.

8:25 I had a Sunday school that started off with only 5 kids. They were about 14-15 years old. And by coincidence, each one had a brother in service and so did I. And one of the kids, the girl said…lwhile I had told them that we’ve got to do something: a service to the community. We can’t just do nothing. There’s a lot of things we could do. And then one of the girls said, “Let’s write to the Nisei soldiers.” And I thought what a great idea!

9:09 And so then I said we’ve got 5 soldier’s names. Could you all by next Sunday bring a couple more names. Maybe somebody else in your barrack has a son or a father or a brother. And so then they came back. Each one came back with at least one name. And then every week, they were bringing back some names. And they got really into it. And they went through their whole barrack. And the people were so nice. They said sure and they gave us their sons’ name, their husbands’ name. And we were getting within…before we left assembly center, we had a couple hundred names. And the families were so happy because they want to be sure that somebody sends letters to them. And then I know people won’t believe it when I say, well we got isseis interested. My mother got so interested. She took…she even did the recording so who wrote to this guy, who wrote…so every body would be covered. 10:39

10:44 They were tickled to get these letters, especially from the kids! And we got younger and younger kids because when the high school and junior high school kids were writing and I think a lot of them were esxcited writing to a soldier. They had never written to a soldier before. Even the grammar school kids would ask us, what are you doing? And they’d want to do it too! And people would ask us all the time. When after two years, I know people won’t believe it, we had 13,000 names! 13,000 names. Well, during the whole war, 35,000 J men or women served during WWII. Well here we had 13,000, which is not quite a third, huh.

11:45 No, they knew that the kids were young. And you could tell by there…oh, and we sent only postcards. But the postcards were only a penny. Can you imagine. So when somebody would donate a dollar, that means 100 people could get a postcard! And the girls would write out things. We all wrote about the same things, “We’re thinking of you. It’s Thanksgiving Day. Hope you’ll get to eat a turkey” or something. And then the grammar school kids liked to draw. Some were good! And so they would draw people sitting around the table, eating. But I wish I had…it was everything was so…not unique, but new! 12:43 No body had to be an artist! Who cares. To the guys, it meant something that somebody was thinking about them. And if the kids were too young to address it, the junior and high school kids would do the addressing.

Irony of being in camp while JA soldiers served?

13:20 You know it’s strange, but I guess a lot of people probably did, but I don’t know. We got so much into it that every day we’d wait for the mailman to see how many cards…well, we sent postcards. They sent regular a note in an envelope. And that was only 2 cents in a war. Can you imagine? And today we’re paying $.37 and $.23 on postcard. But a penny! 14:00

It helped pass the time?

YEAH! Oh yeah. And all kinds of things were going on in camp. There were young boys learning. Somebody’s teaching karate. 14:13 All kinds of things. And even the isseis were learning to dance and all. And then there are guys who played cards. But I think sports was the main thing that brought us all together. We’d all go out to watch our block play.

CURRENT DAY. Where were you when you learned about the WTC.
15:00 That happened in 2001, September 11. So I was out here. I wasn’t in NY. I don’t know maybe you called me, but when it was on the TV, I think several people called and said, “Put on your tv right away!” And before I could say what’s…I guess they clicked and were calling somebody else.

15:39 When I saw the …it was almost unbelieveable. I mean, how could it happen in the US and here right here in NY. And you worry about how close it is to people I know. I wanted you to see the book I’ve been reading. Yesterday I picked it up. It’s here somewhere. The pictures! You know. I thought to myself, “Gosh, there must have been a lot of people who have cameras.” Unless they’re tourists in NY. Because the pictures that were taken by so many people. Even if you were having a contest about who could take the most dramatic pictures, they just happen to have a camera and they just shot. Whatever. But I’ve never seen such great pictures.

I’m reading a book. I want you all to read it. It’s a scientist and writer. It’s they’re second book on 9/11. They weren’t there at 9/11. They were here in CA, I think. But they went back to NY and they interviewed a lot of people. Not just htose who lived in Ny to get their sentiment about the whole thing. They interviewed a lot of people who are in architecture and science and they got the opinions of a lot of people who are in to building these big buildings and things and …

17:47 The first thing was, well I called up family people saying do you know anyone who works there! I wonder how many J were there. Or C. Well Chinatown business went, just, a lot of them couldn’t handle business after that because people were afraid to go down there. It’s almost like over night…

18:29 Well I think first. The actual horrendous looking. You know all the smoke and all that. How everything almost went to just dust! And it was like a dark smoke enveloping! The whole thing is amazing that some people got out, though. You wonder how they could have gotten out. And there were people who told stories and they just ran and ran! Just to be ahead of the clouds that were coming after you. And then you think about those who got stuck and they were almost out of the building and someone told them it’s safe. You can go back. And to think all htose people were killed because they went back. And you know stories of firemen, a whole team of firemen, who could have been saved. They didn’t have to go back, but they were told to go back. And they were all killed.

19:56 I think that so many of the people that I run around with think that there’s something amiss that there has to be some complicity with the US government. This could not have happened without…and why didn’t the US government really do anything? So many people said they went to the Pentagon and they said it absolutely, at least the Pentagon one, the Pentagon, it could not have been one of those huge planes. There was nothing left of a plane. That it had to be a missle. And the two that hit the WTC, a lot of people were suspicious saying that even if you were going to do it and you jwere training for it. Then if you were in the pilot seat and you’re going towards the target, a human being usually would…it’s not that easy to go right to the target. You’re going to swerve.

21:48 I went to a lot of meetings where I heard so many speakers…but then there were several things now. They immiditely sid it was Bin Laden, before they knew anything else, they said it wsa Osama Bin Laden and US decided the first place they would bomb would be Afghanistan because they let Bin Laden stay there. 22:37Al Queda vs. Taliban.

23:10 PEACE VIGIL IN J-TOWN 24:05 book about 9/11 conspiracy.

I think 9/11 was much much…have you seen shots of the PH bombing? :28 Frightening almost. Sailors only. Hardly any officers. Both at PH…US lied about VN 1:39 US wanting oil in ME.

REDRESS MOVEMENT 2:52 I think there’s a lot of differences. During WWII, the ppresident was FDR and then he died in office and Truman took his plce. I don’t care what president, their policies aren’t so different! I mean, America is about military power. And I think during WWII, America ws wondering how could they knock out J. US has always wondered whether it would ware against China or Japan first…3:54 US helping China. Japan needed oil. 5:20 US IMPERIALISM SO WHY SPEAK OUT 5:50 The reason I felt it wsa important to speak out right away is because US has been doing the same thing over and over. When you think of right from the beginning of US history, first she anhialiate the indigenous American Indians. Indians killed. Slave trade. 7:28 US has to control the world.

DAY OF REMEMBERANCE 10:28 First of all, we never thought at the beginning that we were going to go after reparations. But we though how sad if our sanseis didn’t know anything about what the niseis went through. You know, being uprooted, evacuated, incarcerated, in the mid-US allover. And so that ws the reason. But in a ashort while, when we started 1970 ws the first day of rememberance. Now they even have it in HI. HI sent to camp. Difference between HI and Kotonk JAs.

HARDEST THINGS FOR THE ISSEIS 14:04 I think the hardest was their sons who volunteered be killed. Isseis lost a lot, but losing a member of your family is much worse than, ok. Iseis lost their homes. They lost their work, their income, they lost the familiarity of the areas they came from. They lost their civil rights. All their rights. Self determination, civil rights. They lost really everything.

16:00 J commited crimes in China

17:18 These immigrants from wherever, if they learn even a little bit of American history, they will see what happened to immigrants before them. And why is it that people from all over the world have come here, and yet, why is it that all the positions of power are still in the hands of whites. Got to be united.

:10 First from 1882 and the Chinese Exclusion Act. Right after that, they had one law after another. Where J couldn’t own land. Asians couldn’t become citizens. This country had all those things set up that immigrants would not be able to have power. …Americn military bases around the world